By Miriam Lanskoy (11/7/2001 issue of the CACI Analyst)
BACKGROUND: In the 19th century, the cost of the North Caucasus conquest was Russia’s decline as a European power. The conquest became particularly cruel, intractable, and drawn out because Russian generals offered impossible terms: the resistance leaders were told to surrender unconditionally, and the territory would be incorporated into the Russian empire on the same basis as any Russian region. The leaders of the resistance sought negotiations on a number of occasions but were never so roundly defeated that they would accept such terms.
By Kemal Kaya (11/7/2001 issue of the CACI Analyst)
BACKGROUND: Turkey was among the first countries to recognize their independence of the newly independent states, and over time, relations intensified in various areas. Especially after awareness of the vast oil and gas reserves in the Caspian basin grew, Turkey, like many other countries, developed interest in these vast energy sources. Apart from strategic political objectives, it has a fast-growing demand for energy consumption domestically and sees additional revenue opportunities in the transportation of these resources to world markets through its soil.
By Maria Sultan (11/7/2001 issue of the CACI Analyst)
BACKGROUND: The 1990s has been an era of many surprises in South Asian power politics, characterized by Indo -Pakistani rivalry and the influence of great powers, mainly China and the U.S. The end of the cold war was thought to bring about a noticeable de-escalation in the level of tension in the numerous conflicts in the third world.
By S. Frederick Starr (11/7/2001 issue of the CACI Analyst)
BAKGROUND: Like all its neighbors, including Iran and Pakistan, Afghanistan is a multi-ethnic land. Pashtuns are the largest group and Tajiks a distant second, followed by Hazaras, Uzbeks, and Turkmens. Obviously, any government that is to be legitimate must be organized in such a way as to assure fair representation for all.
The Central Asia-Caucasus Analyst is a biweekly publication of the Central Asia-Caucasus Institute & Silk Road Studies Program, a Joint Transatlantic Research and Policy Center affiliated with the American Foreign Policy Council, Washington DC., and the Institute for Security and Development Policy, Stockholm. For 15 years, the Analyst has brought cutting edge analysis of the region geared toward a practitioner audience.